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K-STAR Configuration Options
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K-STAR Configuration Options (888915-PV96)


Product: FastPath 5 v1.0
Component:
3rd Party Product(s): Release Date: Pending

K-STAR Configuration Options

K-STAR Version 9.2 includes many configuration options, most of which are accessible through Shiva® Net Manager. The configuration options that are not included in Shiva Net Manager can be accessed by performing the following steps.

1.

Launch the Shiva Net Manager application by double-clicking on its icon.
2.
Select FastPath in the Device Types list, select the appropriate zone in the Zones list, and select the FastPath in the device list.
3.
Select the Open FastPath command in the Device menu.
4.
Select the Save Configuration as... command in the FastPath menu to save the configuration to disk.
5.
Enter a file name in the filename check box and click Save to save your configuration to disk.
6.
Double-click on FastPath to open the FastPath Configuration window.
7.
Move the pointer to the upper left-hand corner of the FastPath Configuration window just above the word FastPath.
8. Press the Option key and click on the word FastPath.
Option Flags

Most of K-STAR's configuration options can be set through Shiva Net Manager. The option flag check boxes in the left portion of the window can be used to set the K-STAR configuration options that cannot be set through Shiva Net Manager.

An option is enabled if the check box has been selected. Some options may already be enabled when you open this window, because many of the options are configured through Shiva Net Manager.

When a FastPath is restarted or given a Go command, it logs which options are enabled. The option flag names are used for this purpose. The following screen demonstrates the use of option flag names.

Number Name Definition
1 This option flag is undefined.
2 NO_CRS Tells the Ethernet controller to stop looking for a carrier sense (CRS) signal. This is primarily for use on broadband networks if Ethernet transmission errors are consistently seen. If the Ethernet transmission error is caused by a different condition, setting this option does not cause the message to stop appearing. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the Ethernet window:(fig)
3 Applies only to the obsolete IP Subsectioning configuration, which is not supported in the FastPath 5
4 Z_BROAD By default, the gateway uses standard IP broadcasting with all 1s in the host portion of the IP address. This option tells K-STAR to calculate a 4.2 BSD-compatible IP broadcast address with all 0s in the host portion. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the IP Configuration window.(fig)
5 NO_ET1 Disables routing of all EtherTalk* Phase 1 gateway traffic and does not send Phase 1 Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) packets on Ethernet. This option disables Phase 1 EtherTalk on the Ethernet interface. It is only effective when Option 17 (AT1) is enabled. With Option 17 on and Option 5 off, Phase 1 EtherTalk is active. With Option 17 on and Option 5 on Phase 1 EtherTalk is not active. This option works only on EtherTalk Phase 1. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the EtherTalk Phase 1 configuration window. Refer to the "Transition Bridging" section.(fig)
6 OLD_AARP By default, the gateway uses AARP (AppleTalk* Address Resolution Protocol) packets for AppleTalk address resolution. If this option is set, it continues to use AARP but also uses a variant of IP-style ARP packets for compatibility with products that predate AARP. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the IP Configuration window.(fig)
7 NBP_ALL For IP Forwarding, tells the gateway to administer IP addresses for Macintosh computers that are physically connected to the gateway's LocalTalk* or Ethernet interface, and/or to a LocalTalk network accessible to the gateway across Ethernet. All of the Macintosh computers must be in the zone configured on the gateway's LocalTalk interface. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the IP Configuration window.(fig)
8 NPROXY By default, for IP Forwarding the gateway responds to Name Binding Protocol (NBP) proxy ARP requests for IP addresses that it knows about but that are not its clients, and never replies to NBP proxy ARP requests to Macintosh computers that are its clients. (Because of the way it assigns IP addresses dynamically, the gateway never responds to NBP proxy ARP requests for its client IP addresses.) If this option is set, the gateway responds to NBP ARP requests only for its own IP address. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the IP Forwarding window.(fig)
9 SPLIT For IP forwarding, tells the gateway to use a separate IP address as the starting point for Macintosh client addresses. Without Option 9 set, the FastPath acts as an IP proxy for the Macintosh computers and responds to protocol requests such as ARP. As such, the Macintosh IP addresses on LocalTalk are maintained by the FastPath and seen as if they were being used on the Ethernet. Option 9 allows for noncontiguous addresses where the IP network addresses on LocalTalk are completely different from the IP network address of the FastPath. It also supports BSD 4.3 subnetting, which allows you to put the LocalTalk Macintosh clients on a subnet. At this point the FastPath acts like an IP router and sends Routing Information Protocol (RIP) packets. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a pop-up menu in the IP Configuration window.
10 NO_RIP Prevents the gateway from broadcasting RIP packets under any circumstances. If Option 9 and 10 are both set, you must statically configure the route to the new IP network on other IP hosts. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the IP Configuration window when Option 9 is on.
11 NRANGE For IP Talk, tells K-STAR to use the new (Network Information Center (NIC)-assigned) range of well-known Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) ports, beginning at 200 (instead of the previous KIP range beginning at 768). This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the IPTalk Configuration window.
12 This option flag is undefined.
13 STAY Prevents users on the LocalTalk side of the gateway from seeing AppleTalk services outside their zone (also known as Stay in Zone security). When this option is set, the FastPath checks the destination zone name in NBP broadcast request packets (the zone selected in the Chooser, in which services may be registered). If it is the same zone associated with the source network, the packet is processed informally; otherwise, it is dropped. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the LocalTalk Configuration window. (fig)
14 LWFILT Hides LaserWriters* on the LocalTalk side of the gateway from users in other zones. When this option is set, the gateway examines NBP reply packets. If the LocalTalk zone name of the gateway is one of the zones for the source net, and if the LocalTalk zone of the gateway is not one of the zones for the destination net, the gateway filters the NBP packet for a tuple with the type LaserWriter; if it finds one, that tuple is removed from the packet. If the packet has any valid tuples after this processing, it is forwarded; otherwise it is dropped. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the LocalTalk Configuration window. (fig)
15 TILDE Hides AppleTalk services, whose names end in a tilde (~), on the LocalTalk side of the gateway from users in other zones. You need to add a tilde at the end of the name of AppleTalk services you want to protect in this way. When this option is selected, the gateway examines NBP reply packets. If the LocalTalk zone name of the gateway is one of the zones for the source net, and if the LocalTalk zone of the gateway is not one of the zones for the destination net, the gateway filters the NBP packet for a tuple with an object name that ends with a tilde (~); if it finds one, that tuple is removed from the packet. If the packet has any valid tuples after this processing, it is forwarded, otherwise it is dropped. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the LocalTalk Configuration window. (fig)
16 CLIPROX Used with IP forwarding. When set, this option tells the FastPath to respond only to proxy-NBP ARP requests from its Macintosh IP clients. Option 16 is set in all FastPaths that are acting as IP gateways and are in the same zone. Doing so prevents one IP gateway from responding to proxy-NBP ARP requests from the Macintosh IP clients of one of the other IP Gateways. This allows a Macintosh IP client to use an IP address assigned by one IP gateway without any of the other IP gateways preventing it from registering this address by responding to the client's NBP lookup for that IP address. Option 16 defaults to off.
17 AT1 Enables AppleTalk Phase 1 protocols in K-STAR including sending Phase 1 RTMP data packets on LocalTalk. Phase 1 behavior also affects the processing of NBP packets. It allows Phase 1 EtherTalk to be used, though that is controlled by Option 5. When Option 17 is off, Phase 1 is not enabled; when Option 17 is on, then Phase 1 behaviors are enabled. If Option 17 is set and Option 18 is not set, the gateway is a transition bridge. If Options 17 and 18 are both set, K-STAR routes only AppleTalk Phase 1 packets. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the Ethernet Configuration window.(fig) Refer to the "Transition Bridging" section.
18 NO_ET2 Turns off EtherTalk Phase 2 protocols in K-STAR. This option enables Phase 2 EtherTalk on the Ethernet interface. When Option 18 is off, Phase 2 EtherTalk is active. When Option 18 is on, Phase 2 EtherTalk is not active. If Options 17 and 18 are both set, K-STAR routes only AppleTalk Phase 1 packets. If Option 18 is set and Option 17 is not set, the gateway encapsulates all AppleTalk traffic in UDP/IP. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the Ethernet Configuration window (enabled by default). Refer to the "Transition Bridging" section.(fig)
19 This option flag is undefined.
20 NOKLAP Ignores KLAP. Enabling this option prevents anyone from using the FastPath Manager to configure this FastPath. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the At Startup area of the main FastPath window.(fig
21 NOUSUM Disables UDP checksums. If this option is set, the FastPath transmits packets with a UDP checksum of 0 and ignores UDP checksums on packets it receives. If you have multiple FastPaths running mixed versions of K-STAR configured for IPTalk, you may have interoperability problems unless you turn this option on. UDP checksums are not calculated correctly by versions of K-STAR prior to Version 8.1.1. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the IP Configuration window.
22 GLEAN For IP Forwarding, if this option is on, when the FastPath hears from an IP address in its client range, it puts the address in its client table, regardless of whether it had assigned the address itself and regardless of the current entry state. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the IP Configuration window.
23 DDPSUM Enables DDP checksums. If Option 23 is enabled, the FastPath checksums the packets it originates. Packets, which are destined for the FastPath, have their checksums (if any) inspected. The checksum field of routed packets is left untouched, regardless of the setting of Option 23. This option is represented in Shiva Net Manager by a check box in the LocalTalk configuration window.
24 RTMPNZ Includes an RTMP entry for a network even if no zone is known for that network. By default, K-STAR tries to avoid "ZIP storms" (large numbers of ZIP queries) by not including networks in RTMP messages if it does not know a zone for that network. You can override this behavior by setting Option 24.
25 OKHOPS Old Kinetics Internet Protocol (KIP) hop counts. K-STAR now computes hop counts differently for IPTalk routes. Previously, it added 2 to any route from atalkad. This method created a problem if there was another router on the network that kept lower hop counts, since that router could tend to get traffic which would have been more efficiently routed through the FastPath. Now, instead of using the hop count supplied by atalkad, K-STAR uses the rule that all "H" and "N" routes are 0 hops away, and all "E" and "K" routes are 1 hop away. The result is that the hop count in K-STAR's routing table more accurately reflects the value that a packet's DDP hop count field has when it reaches the destination network. You can restore the old style of computing hop counts by setting Option 25.
26 EDIAG Send diagnostics as broadcasts on EtherTalk Phase 1. FastPath diagnostics are then visible to the FastPath Manager running on an EtherTalk Macintosh (Phase 1 or Phase 2). This option causes a load on the network and should be used for debugging purposes only.
27 DEBUF This option is used for debugging. If set, this option causes the FastPath to log its uptime and a set of buffer and Ethernet statistics every 10 minutes. The buffer statistics indicate the current number of free buffers available out of the total number of free buffers in the FastPath, and how many times a request for a free buffer was made and could not be fulfilled (drops). The Ethernet statistics include the number of packets received, dropped, broadcast, and sent, along with the number of Ethernet errors. Examples of debug messages in the FastPath's log follow.
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Transition Bridging

Transition bridging, as used with the FastPath, refers to learning network (routing) information on an interface using one routing protocol and then advertising that information out the same or a different interface using another routing protocol. For transition bridging, Phase 1 and Phase 2 Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) are considered different routing protocols, even though they are just variations of the same routing protocol. Therefore, the protocols to which transition bridging applies are: Phase 1 RTMP, Phase 2 RTMP, IPTalk, and TunnelTalk. Typically transition bridging is used to allow the existence of Phase 1 and Phase 2 routers on the same Internet However, transition bridging (as defined in the FastPath) may be used when:

* Phase 1 on LocalTalk and IPTalk on Ethernet are used together without any EtherTalk
* Phase 1 on LocalTalk and Phase 2 on EtherTalk are used without any Phase 1 EtherTalk.

The following 3 options are related to transition bridging.

Option 5 (NO_ET1)

This option controls Phase 1 EtherTalk on the Ethernet interface. It is only effective when Option 17 (AT1) is enabled. With Option 17 on and Option 5 off, Phase 1 EtherTalk is active. With Option 17 on and Option 5 on, Phase 1 EtherTalk is not active.

Option 17 (AT1)

This option controls Phase 1 behaviors, including sending Phase 1 RTMP data packets on LocalTalk. Phase 1 behavior also affects the processing of Name Binding Protocol (NBP) packets. Option 17 allows Phase 1 EtherTalk to be used, though that is controlled by Option 5. When Option 17 is off, Phase 1 is not enabled; when Option 17 is on, then Phase 1 behaviors are enabled.

Option 18 (NO_ET2)

This option controls Phase 2 EtherTalk on the Ethernet interface. When Option 18 is off, Phase 2 EtherTalk is active. When Option 18 is on, Phase 2 EtherTalk is not active.

Transition Bridging Options

Table 2 helps to better define the transition bridging options and their behavior.

Table 2. Transition Bridging Options
--------------------------------------------------------------

Option 5 Option 17 Option 18
(NO_ET1) (AT1) (NO_ET2) Behavior
--------------------------------------------------------------
No effect Off Off Phase 2 EtherTalk
Phase 2 LocalTalk
No effect Off On No EtherTalk
Phase 2 LocalTalk
Off On Off Phase 1 and Phase 2 EtherTalk
Phase 1 LocalTalk
Off On On Phase 1 EtherTalk
Phase 1 LocalTalk
On On Off Phase 2 EtherTalk
Phase 1 LocalTalk
On On On No EtherTalk
Phase 1 LocalTalk
--------------------------------------------------------------

In all cases, IPTalk and TunnelTalk may be used on the Ethernet interface. IPTalk and TunnelTalk are not affected by the settings of these options. This means, for example, with the options set so EtherTalk is not enabled at all and Phase 1 LocalTalk is active, it is possible to route between Phase 1 LocalTalk and IPTalk and TunnelTalk even though EtherTalk is not active. Internal routing between IPTalk and TunnelTalk happens automatically.

It is not possible to configure a FastPath to use the combination of Phase 2 LocalTalk and Phase 1 EtherTalk.

Option Parameters

The configuration options window also contains option parameters. Some of K-STAR's option parameters can be set through Shiva Net Manager. Others need to be set through the option parameters fields located in the right portion of the window.

The option parameters are 1-byte values. A byte is enabled if its option box contains a nonzero value. Some option boxes may have non-zero values in them when you open the window, because the option parameters are configured through Shiva Net Manager. These values should only be changed using the main Shiva Net Manager configuration window.

The option parameters that can be set are described in Table 3:

Table 3. Option Parameters
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Option Description
Parameter
Number
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6 This option is used by the FastPath 4 PROM to set the maximum length of the LocalTalk transmit queue. The default value used depends on whether expansion RAM is present. If there is no expansion RAM, then the default value is 8. If there is expansion RAM, the default value is 32.
8 This option is used for log message filtering for the internal log and should be changed through the main Shiva Net Manager configuration window.
9 This option indicates the signed offset from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in 15-minute units. The GMT value is used by the FastPath's internal clock.
For example, Eastern Standard Time (EST) is 5 hours earlier than GMT. This is represented as EC in hexadecimal (236 in decimal). There are 20 15-minute periods in 5 hours. However, since it is earlier than GMT, the offset must be a negative number. A -20 in decimal format is equivalent to EC in hexadecimal format. This option parameter byte is configured when a User Datagram Protocol (UDP) time server is used since the value returned by the server is in GMT.
11 This option is a mask of remote boot methods to disable:
0x01 KLAP BOOTME
0x02 IP BOOTP
0x04 IP RARP
0x08 IP Unconfigured TFTP
17 This option is used for configuring the IP address hold time and should be configured through the main Shiva Net Manager configuration window.
18 This option is used for configuring the port on which the FastPath NBP registers and should be configured through the main Shiva Net Manager configuration window.

CAUTION
The contents of this document have not been technically reviewed by Shiva, please use this information at your own risk.

Disclaimer
This information is supplied without representation or warranty of any kind. Shiva Corporation assumes no responsibility and shall have no liability of any kind arising from supply or use of this material.

The information contained herein is proprietary to Shiva Corporation and/or its vendors, and its use or disclosure is subject to the restrictions stated in the standard Shiva Corporation license terms and conditions or the appropriate third-party sublicense agreement.


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